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Martha S. Grafton Library

Citation Help: Chicago / Turabian

Information on properly citing research.

Chicago Style

The Chicago Manual of Style is published and created by the University of Chicago Press for publishers, scholars, and students. The first version of the manual was published in 1906 and the 16th, most recent, edition was published in August 2010. The Chicago Manual includes formatting guidelines on the use of the English language for writers in all disciplines, but the citation style is used primarily by those in the humanities.

From: "History of the Chicago Manual of Style." The Chicago Manual of Style Online, http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/about16_history.html (accessed 17 December 2010).

Turabian Style

Turabian style was created by Kate L. Turabian (1893-1987), a secretary at the University of Chicago who worked with the graduate school dissertations and edited official publications for the university. Turabian style closely follows the 15th ed. Chicago Manual of Style, but with slight adaptations specifically for students and researchers.

From: "Who was Kate Turabian." Kate L. Turabian, 7th Edition, http://www.press.uchicago.edu/books/turabian/turabian_who.html (accessed 17 December 2010).

All of the example citations on this page are appropriate for papers in Chicago or Turabian style.

Notes

In Chicago and Turabian Style citations appear as either footnotes at the end of a page or endnotes at the end of your paper that correspond to a superscript number in the text of your paper. Unless your professor specifies, you can use either foot or end notes but should consistently use one or the other, not both. Use Word’s note feature in the References pane to insert foot or end notes.

Additional Resources for Citing in Chicago

Print Vs. Electronic Sources

Print sources that you find on the shelves in the library won't have DOI (Digital Object Identifiers) or URLs for you to list in their citations. That's okay, just list the information you have about the source's publication. 

When you access a source online, be sure to include information about where you found it. If the article has a DOI, include this. If not, or if it is a source for which a DOI does not apply (eBooks or Websites), list the URL. 

Look for a stable or permanent URL to list with your citations for articles and books you find in library databases, as the URL generated in your address bar doesn't always work a few hours or days later. 

Example Bibliography Entries and Notes:

Journal Articles

Bibliography Entry:

Author(s). “Article Title.” Journal Title volume number, no. issue (Year): pages. Doi: DOI.

Lorenzo, David. “Temple Burning in Modern Prague.” Classic Modernism 102, no. 2(2005): 150-74. doi:10.1086/591611.

Note:

1. Author(s), “Article Title,” Journal Title volume number, no. issue (Month Year): page range used, URL/DOI.

1. David Lorenzo, “Temple Burning in Modern Prague,” Classic Modernism 102, no. 2 (2005): 150-74. doi: 10.1086/591611.

Newspaper Articles

Bibliography Entry:

Author(s). “Article Title.” Newspaper Title, Publication Date.

Holmes, Trisha. “Visiting Professor Lectures on Art History.” The Newsleader (Staunton, VA), Feb. 13, 2009.

Note:

1. Author(s), “Article Title,” Newspaper Title, Publication Date. 

1. Trisha Holmes, “Visiting Professor Lectures on Art History,” The Newsleader (Staunton, VA), Feb. 13, 2009: 

For regional newspapers only: include city and state abbreviation in parenthesis after the title.

Books

Bibliography Entry:

Author(s). Book Title. Location: Publisher, Year.

Pollan, Michael. The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals. New York: Penguin, 2006.

Note:

1. Author(s), Title of Book (Location: Publisher, Year), page range used.

1. Michael Pollan, The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals (New York: Penguin, 2006), 111-15.

Book Chapters

Bibliography Entry:

Author(s). “Chapter Title.” In Book Title, edited by Editor(s), pages of chapter. Location, Publisher, Publication Date.

Gould, Glenn. “Streisand as Schwarzkopf.” In The Glenn Gould Reader, edited by Tim Page, 308-11. New York: Vintage, 1984.

Note:

1. Author(s), “Chapter Title” in Book Title, ed. Editor(s) (Location: Publisher, Publication Date), page(s) used.

1. Glenn Gould, “Streisand as Schwarzkopf,” in The Glenn Gould Reader, ed. Tim Page (New York: Vintage, 1984), 310.

Websites

Before you cite your website, make sure its not one of the following: 

  • Article in an online database 
  • Scholarly article on a websites 
  • Magazine article on a website 
  • Newpaper article on a website 
  • Blog 
  • Twitter 
  • Any other form of media (such as a video, slideshow, sound recording, image, etc.) 

These types of sources need to be cited primarly as their format type, while mentioning that they were found online. Websites, on the otherhand, are primarly cited as being websites.

Bibliography Entry:

Author(s). “Title of Web Page.” Publisher or Website Name. Publication Date. URL.

Long, Sue. “Cat Care: Cats and Babies.” American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. Accessed July 19, 2008. http://www.aspca.org/pet-care/cat-care.

Note:

1. Author(s), “Webpage Title,” Publisher or Website Name, Publication Date, URL.

1. Sue Long, “Cat Care: Cats and Babies,” American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, Accessed July 19, 2008, http://www.aspca.org/pet-care/cat-care.

 

Unpublished Interviews

Interviews you conduct including face-to-face and telephone conversations, letters, e-mails or text messages are usually not cited in your bibliography, only in your notes in Chicago style. You can include the person's expertise in parenthesis after their name to clarify why you interviewed them, but this is not required.  

Notes:

11. Name of person interviewed (trade or area of expertise if applicable) interviewed by name of interviewer, date.

13. John Smith (Historian) in discussion with the author, February 2004.

Published Interviews

Published interviews should be cited as an interview within the larger work in which they were published, much like journals or book chapters. Begin the citation with the person interviewed. If the interview is titled, include it in quotation marks. If the interview doesn't have a title, type Interview with Interviewer's name. Then include publication information for the book, journal, television or radio program.

Handouts

PDF handout made by Grafton Library. This handout is also available in print by the reference desk.

Formatting Tips

List authors as ordered in your source. In the Bibliography only, reverse the first author’s name for alphabetizing (Last name, then first name separated by a comma). If multiple authors, separate names with commas and connect the second to last and last author’s names with and.  

Book, Journal, Newspaper and Website titles are italicized.

Capitalize the first word, the last word and all principal words of the title. Basically, everything but words like; a, an, and, as, against, between, but, for, in, nor, of, or, the, to, so, yet, or to.

For locations, give only the city name.

When you can’t find a Publication Date, include the date you accessed the source. 

Do not repeat the hundreds digit in page ranges if it does not change.

Formatting your Bibliography

Title your list of citations: Bibliography. Alphabetize your citations in your Bibliography by Author's last name. Use a 1/2 inch hanging indent and single space your citations but leave an empty line between citations. 

Formatting your Notes

The first line of notes should be indented ½ inch. All following lines should be flush left. Single space your notes and leave an empty line between them.

Second and Subsequent Notes

The first time you cite a source you need to include a full footnote for the source, as shown above. The second and subsequent times you cite the same source, you can include a brief note that includes only the author’s last name, a shortened version of the title and the page you’re referencing. 

12. Pollan, Omnivore’s Dilemma, 115.