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Martha S. Grafton Library

European History: Background Research

Guide to resources in European history, including reference works, databases, and websites.

Using Reference Resources

Reference books like dictionaries and encyclopedias are great ways to get background information on your topic.

Use almanacs and statistical sources to get primary information.

Chronologies provide timelines--use them to get a feel for what happened when.

You will need to cite information you learn from reference works, just as you would from books and articles. Citation information is usually at the bottom of the screen if you are using an online reference source.

Online biographical sources

Online reference resources

Reference Books in Grafton


Almanacs and Statistics